The holistic approach to the production of the built space

Indicative characteristic websites, as well as articles, mainly derived from the framework of "sustainable building":


Alliance for Global Sustainability

Architectural Record: New Building Systems Mimic Nature and Return to a Biocentric Approach to Design

Architectural Record: Innovation

LEED: Green Ideas

Whole Building Design


The Integrated Design Process (IDP) a more holistic approach to sustainable architecture (paper, PDF)

Bringing in the Social Perspective: User Centred Design (paper, PDF).


"Ekistics", the field of research established by the architect and urban design researcher C. Doxiadis, can be considered as an early holistic investigation of the built space. Within Ekistics the factors that affect the development of the built space are considered as a system, while issues such as morphogenesis through optimization (e.g. effort minimization), interdisciplinary integration of the production methods, achievement of synergies, sustainability, as well as development of structures in different scales, are investigated. This approach was established decades before the particular issues were considered as a mainstream research within the framework of either complex systems or sustainable design.


Constantinos A. Doxiadis




The holistic approach to the computational design methods

Computer aided design methods, which can be considered within the framework of the holistic approach, are those that support emergent properties as well as the development of design solutions through the simulation of living-world paradigms. Such simulation are usually attempted by means of evolutionary and cellular systems respectively. Another issue, within the holistic approach, concerns the integration of the computational procedures with the other production procedures.


Challenges and Fallacies in Computer Applications of the Evolutionary Analogy in Design Methodology

The computer languages GENETICA and G-CAD

Architectural Interpretation of Cellular Automata

Using Cellular Automata to Challenge Cookie-Cutter Architecture

The Groningen Twister: An experiment in applied generative design

CASA Working Paper Series

Understanding spatial and temporal processes of urban growth: cellular automata modelling

Emergent Design Group

Genetic Programming Bibliography entries for Paul S Coates

Nature Inspired Design



Collaborators' websites

Websites of friends and collaborators who are either directly involved in integrated building systems, or participated in organized discussions on the subject while contributed in the development of this website with comments and suggestions.




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