8. Bibliography and websites



8.1 Sustainability and economic growth

8.1.1 Criticism to the economic growth paradigm which results in resources' exhaustion

8.1.2 The economy as a complex system and the concept of sustainability

8.1.3 Alternative paradigms of organization of the economy


8.2 Sustainable design

8.2.1 Introduction & websites

8.2.2 Paradigms of the living world in sustainable designing

8.2.3 "Integration" with the physical environment: Urban scale sustainable designing Paolo Soleri: Arcosanti New Urbanism Carfree Cities

8.2.4 Sustainable building techniques Materials Exploitation of geothermal energy Green Roofs City Farming


8.3 The concept of "integration" in the framework of "complex systems"

8.3.1 The theory of complex systems

8.3.2 Designing principles in the framework of complex systems' theory

8.3.3 Kinetic Design


8.4 The "language" paradigm in designing

8.4.1 "Pattern Language"

8.4.2 Combination of the "language" approach with living world paradigms


8.5 Integration in the production environment

8.5.1 Network production organization

8.5.2 The "Open Source" paradigm

8.5.3 Virtual Enterprises

8.5.4 Social Capital

8.5.5 Study of forms of "integration" of the production within the framework of "complex systems"




8.1 Sustainability and economic growth


8.1.1 Criticism to the economic growth paradigm which results in resources' exhaustion


Hardin G., 1968, "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, 162:1243-1248.



Daly H., 1991. Steady-State Economics. Island Press, Washington.



Wilson R., 2004, "Greening the Economy: Introduction", preface: round table held by Democratic Dialogue (www.democraticdialogue.org) on the theme of Greening the Economy in Northern Ireland



New Economics Foundation



Die off (website)




8.1.2 The economy as a "complex system" and the concept of sustainability


Foxon, T., D. Hammond, and J. Wells. "Can Complexity Studies Advance Sustainability? Scaling in Natural & Social Systems." Complex Systems Summer School Final Project Papers, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, 2005.



Tainter J.A., 1996, "Complexity, Problem Solving, and Sustainable Societies"


from GETTING DOWN TO EARTH: Practical Applications of Ecological Economics,

Island Press, 1996; ISBN 1-55963-503-7 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1559635037


W. Brian Arthur, 1999. "Complexity and the Economy," Science, 2 April 1999, 284, 107-109.


This article does not refer directly to the sustainability of the economic growth, but focus in issues of divergence and non-predictability

More articles of the author are available in:



Santa Fe Institute





8.1.3 Alternative paradigms of organization of the economy


Participatory Economics

PARECON: http://www.zmag.org/parecon/indexnew.htm


Albert M. and Hahnel R., 1991, The Political Economy of Participatory Economics

Princeton University Press



Further alternative organization paradigms are reported in the section "Integration in the production environment"




8.2 Sustainable design


8.2.1 Introduction & websites


Kim J-J, 1998, Introduction to Sustainable Design. National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education, Ann Arbor, MI



Sustainable Architecture



Web Resources



The Sustainable Design Resource Guide




8.2.2 Paradigms of the living world in sustainable designing


The "sustainable design" methods are structurally related to phenomena that characterize the living world, as the latter is formed according to sustainability criteria. In particular, such phenomena adopted in "sustainable design" methods include both evolution and development (see also: Combination of the "language" approach with living world paradigms). These phenomena have been thoroughly studied within the framework of "Complex Systems".


Magnoli G.C., Bonanni L.A., Khalaf R., Fox M., 2001, "Designing a DNA for responsive architecture:

a new built environment for social sustainability", MIT Media Lab, Development by design Workshop



E. Tsui, 1996, Evolutionary Architecture: Nature as a Basis for Design. John Wiley & Sons Inc





8.2.3 "Integration" with the physical environment: Urban scale sustainable designing


The "integration" of both natural and built space within a unified system could be based on the maintenance of the natural environment and the utilization of the natural resources which diminishes the necessity of expensive, cumbersome urban infrastructure. This reduces the social cost while improves the quality of the built space. Paolo Soleri: Arcosanti




Soleri P., 1993, Arcosanti: An Urban Laboratory?. Mayer, AZ.: The Cosanti Press, 1993



Soleri P., 1969, Arcology: City in the Image of Man, Cambridge, MA.: Mit Press. New Urbanism


Duany A., Speck J., Plater-Zyberk E., 2001, Smart Growth: New Urbanism in American Communities. McGraw-Hill Education

New Urbanism: http://www.newurbanism.org/

Congress for the New Urbanism: http://www.cnu.org Carfree Cities


Crawford J.H., 2000, Carfree Cities. International Books




8.2.4 Sustainable building techniques


The choice of materials having low social cost while satisfy the required specifications, the utilization of "soft" natural energy sources, the energy saving through bioclimatic techniques such as planting appropriate areas of the construction, as well as the reduction of the urban infrastructure through the production of the necessary resources within the consumption centers, constitute common sustainable building techniques. Materials


Ries J.P. and Holm T.A., 2004, "A Holistic Approach to Sustainability for the Concrete Community", Information sheet 7700.1



Centre for Design at RMIT (1999). "Introduction to EcoReDesign"

http://www.cfd.rmit.edu.au/services/publications_web_tools/articles/introduction_to_ecoredesign Exploitation of geothermal energy


Lund J.W., 2004, "100 Years of Geothermal Power Production", GHC Bulletin Articles Vol 25, No. 3: revised version of the article appearing in Renewable Energy World, Vol. 7, No. 4



Lund J., Sanner B., Rybach L., Curtis R., Hellstrom G., 2003, "Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps - A World Overview", GHC Bulletin Articles Vol 25, No. 3: edited and updated version of the article from Renewable Energy World, Vol. 6, No.4



Boyd T.L and Lienau P.J., 1995. "Geothermal Heat Pump Performance", Geothermal Resources Council 1995 Annual Meeting, Reno NV.



Rafferty K., 2000. "Design Aspects of Commercial Open-Loop Heat Pump Systems", Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR.



Kavanaugh, S., 1995. "Cost Containment for Ground-Source Heat Pumps", The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL.



Mendrinos D., Karagiorgas ., Karytsas C., 2002, "Use of Geothermal Heat Pumps for Heating of Buildings in Greece" presented in the OPET Low Temperature Systems in Existing/ Historical Buildings Workshop (OPET LowExx Workshop), Maastricht, the Netherlands.





Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) subject portal



Geo-Heat Center Publications Technical Reports and Papers



U.S. Department of Energy: A Consumer's guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy



GEO-HEAT CENTER Geothermal Information and Technology Transfer



wikipedia: Geothermal exchange heat pump



GEOEXCHANGE Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium



International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA)

http://www.igshpa.okstate.edu/ Green Roofs


Peck S.W., Callaghan C., Kuhn M.E. and Bass B., 1999, "Greenbacks from Green Roofs: Forging a New Industry in Canada". Status Report prepared for Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation



Kuhn M., Liu K., and Marshall S., 2001, Proceedings of the Green Roof Infrastructure Workshop. NRC, CMHC



List of references



See also:



http://www.greenroofs.org/ City Farming


Resources for City Farming



Smit J., Ratta A. and Nasr J., 1996, Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities. The Urban Agriculture Network,NW Washington DC



See also:




8.3 The concept of "integration" in the framework of "complex systems"


Reference to the living world paradigm, spontaneous development, variability, adaptability, formation by evolution, structure development through interactions, as well as the concept of "integration" itself which is closely related to emergent properties, make necessary a broader framework, within the exact sciences, providing the basis for studying both the integrated and the sustainable building. The theory of complex systems provides such a framework, while it has been considered as the basis of many current approaches to both the analysis and the design of the built space.



8.3.1 The theory of complex systems


Brief introduction



Bar‑Yam Y., 1997, Dynamics of Complex Systems. Addison Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts



Kauffman S.A., 1988, "Origins of order in evolution: self organization and selection". in Workshop on Chaos and Complexity, Eds R Livi, S Ruffo, S Ciliberto, M Buiati (World Scientific Publishing, Singapore), 349-387


Kauffman S.A., 1995, At Home in the Universe. Oxford University Press: NewYork.


Holland J.H., 1995, Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity. Helix Books, Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass.


8.3.2 Principles of design within the framework of complex systems


Bar-Yam Y., 2003, "When Systems Engineering Fails -- Toward Complex Systems Engineering", International Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, Vol. 2, 2021- 2028, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ



Hensel M., Menges A., Weinstock M., 2004. Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies, Wiley-Academy


Jacobs J., 1993, Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House USA Inc



Salingaros N.A., 1997, "Life and Complexity in Architecture From a Thermodynamic Analogy", Physics Essays, volume 10 1997, pages 165-173.



Salingaros N.A., 2005, Principles of Urban Structure. Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland.


8.3.3 Kinetic Design


Design applications based on the principle of adaptability have been developed within the framework of "kinetic design": the building project has kinetic attributes which allow adaptation to variable conditions.


Kinetic Design Group




8.4 The "language" paradigm in designing


Information saving and reusability characterizes the integrated systems, as well as the sustainable design in general, as information constitutes an important production resource. A general saving-reusability method is the use of modules which, if combined under appropriate syntactic rules, result in complex modules: this process, recursively applied, makes possible the production of complex desired structures by a construction procedure having a small number of steps. The particular approach to either the design or the construction refers to the notion of a "language". A classical example is C. Alexander's "Pattern Language". The language-based approach can be combined with the living world paradigms of both evolution and development within the framework of complex systems.


8.4.1 "Pattern Language"


Alexander C., 1978, A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Center for Environmental Structure Series, Oxford University Press Inc, USA.



8.4.2 Combination of the "language" approach with living world paradigms


The paradigm of evolution

Salingaros N.A., Mikiten T.M., 2002, "Darwinian Processes and Memes in Architecture: A Memetic Theory of Modernism". Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission, volume 6



The paradigm of development

Salingaros N.A., 1998, "A Scientific Basis for Creating Architectural Forms", Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, volume 15 pages 283-293.



More articles available in: http://math.utsa.edu/sphere/salingar/contr.arch.html



8.5 Integration in the production environment



8.5.1 Network production organization


The environment of production consists of available production technologies, as well as production units which, if appropriately combined, make possible the production of a collective product. Such a combination could organize the production as an integrated system through the network organization of the producers.


Van Alstyne M., 1997 "The State of Network Organization: A Survey in Three Frameworks." Journal of Organizational Computing 7(3).




Stephen P. Borgatti and Pacey C. Foster, 2003 "The Network Paradigm in Organizational Research: A Review and Typology", Journal of Management, Volume 29, Issue 6, December 2003, Pages 991-1013


(see also: Social Capital)



8.5.2 The "Open Source" paradigm


The free distribution and usage of the produced information, as well as the spontaneous formation of the production organization structure, characterize the "open source" paradigm (the term "open source" comes from the field of informatics, as the particular principles were initially applied in software production).


Loshin P., 2006, "The Economics of Free Software", Busines Intelligence Network (website)



MIT Open Source Building Alliance: invitation for a multiparty modular contributionaccording to the "open source" paradigmto the development of integrated production technology.



Thinkcycle Open Collaborative Design




8.5.3 Virtual Enterprises


The development of informal, mutually beneficial cooperation relations among independent production units, as well as the informal formation of a unified production mechanism based on such relations, is characterized as "virtual enterprise".


Ader M., 2000, "Technologies for the Virtual Enterprise", in Excellence in Practice Volume III: Innovation & Excellence in Workflow Process and Knowledge Management. L. Fischer, Future Strategies



Bryson J.R., Rusten G., 2004, "Virtual Firms and the Rise of Project-Based Organizational Forms for the Supply of Business Service Expertise: Information communication technologies and the stretching of social relationships across space", XIVe Conference RESER Castres, TIC et relations de services dans une economie globalisee



Camarinha-Matos L.M., Afsarmanesh H., Erbe H-H., 2000, Advances In Networked Enterprises: Virtual Organisations, Balanced Automation, and Systems Integration. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston Hardbound



Katzy B.R. and Schuh G., 1999, "The Virtual Enterprise", in Handbook of Life Cycle Engineering, Molina E, Molina A., Kluwer Academic Publishers




8.5.4 Social Capital


The development of various forms of networked production requires a social infrastructure which includes both knowledge and skill variability, as well as a network of appropriate social relations. This infrastructure is characterized as "social capital".





Burt R., 2000, "The network structure of social capital", in Research in Organizational Behavior, Volume 22, BM Staw, RL Sutton (Eds), JAI Press, Greenwich CT



Jarvenpaa, E., Stina I., 2005, "Social capital and knowledge management of organizational network". The 5th European Conference on Organizational Knowledge, Learning and Capabilities, Innsbruck




8.5.5 Study of forms of "integration" of the production within the framework of "complex systems"


The development of forms of ad hoc cooperation, as well as the emergence of synergistic phenomena has been studied within the framework of complex systems.


M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam: What complex systems research can teach us about collaborative design, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD-2001), 5-12, 2001, IEEE Press.



J. K. Werfel and Y. Bar-Yam, The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication, PNAS 101, 11019-11024, 2004.



M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam: The dynamics of collaborative design: Insights from complex systems and negotiation research, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications (CERA Journal) 11:3, 201-209, September



M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam: A complex systems perspective on computer-supported collaborative design technology, Communications of the ACM 45:11, 27-31, 2002.